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一对一初二英语下简单句的基本语法

2019-09-16 17:17:56    /    初中英语一对一  /  作者:一对一英语培训  / 阅读:

个性化教学辅导教案学科:英语(下) 姓名 年级 任课教师: 八年级 性别 授课时间: 总课时教 学 目 标难点 重点1. 复习上一次课的内容,并阐述上一次课的习题; 2. 句子的成分; 3. 简单句的六种基本语法。 教学重点:简单句的六种基本语法; 教学难点:简单句的六种基本语法。 作业布置安排: 课前 教学 反馈 作业完成状态:优□ 良□ 中□ 差□ 建议 检查 任课教师反馈状态:简单句的几乎句型 课前检测一. 讲解上一次课的习题。课 堂 教 学 过 程二. 朗读 Module 6 的短文、单词、词组。(看书本和资料) 三. 默写 Module 6 的短语、词组。 过 扇子 n. ____________ 硬币 n. ___________ 美元____________ 邮票 n. ____________ 使鲜艳;使干净____________ 隔板;架子 n. ____________ 看一看____________ 作为;当 prep. ____________ 纸币 n. ____________ 英镑 n. ____________ 一定;肯定 v. ____________有价值的 adj. ____________用……prep. ____________ 价值 n. ____________只是; 仅仅 adv. ____________ 人 n. ____________ 兴趣;爱好 n. ____________技能;技艺 n. ____________ 活动 n. ____________ 航海;航行 n. ____________ 出版;问世____________ 程 结果; 后果 n. ____________ 结果; 因此____________愉悦; 快乐 n. ____________ 成功;成就 n. ____________ 占用____________ 对……感兴趣____________ 长大成人 ____________ 培养你的兴趣____________ 照顾动物____________句子成分一. 组成词语的成分叫词组成分。

二. 在语句中,词与词两者有一定的组合关系, 按照不同的关系,可以把句子分 为不同的构成成分。三. 句子成分由词或短语充当。 四. 英语的几乎成分有七种:主语、谓语、表语、宾语、宾补、定语和句型。 (一)主语 主语是动词讲述的对象,表示所说的“是怎么”或“是谁”。一般由动词、代词、不 定式或相当于名词的词或词组来当作。它在句首。如: Lucy is a beautiful nurse. (名词作谓语) (代词作谓语) (动词性作谓语) (主语从句作谓语) He reads newspapers every day. Smoking is harmful to the health.To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure.(不定式作谓语) What we should do is not yet decided. (二)谓语 1. 谓语是证明主语的动作或情况。 说明名词“做哪些”“是怎么”或“怎么样”,谓语 (谓语部分里大致的词)必须是名词。一般放在动词可是。 2. 谓语一定和句型在“人称”和“数”上保持一致。 3. 谓语一般是由名词或连系动词+表语充当。

His parents are teachers. We study hard. (系动词和句型一起作状语) (行为单词作状语) (情态副词和行为单词一起作状语)We don’t finish reading the book. (助动词和行为名词一起作状语) He can speak English. (三)宾语 1. 宾语表示动作、行为的对象。 2. 只有及物动词可带补语,有些不及物动词加上介词或词组后也可带名词。一般 放在谓语之外。 3. 由动词、代词或相当于名词的词、短语或词组充当。 She is doing her homework now.(名词作谓语) She says(that)she is ill.(宾语补语作名词短语) We often help him.(代词作谓语) He likes to play basketball.(不定式作谓语) (四)宾语补足语 在动词前面补充证明宾语的动作、状态、特征的特性,称为宾语补足语。名词、 形容词、副词、介词短语以及名词不定式、分词等可用作宾语补足语。宾语和宾 语补足语称为复合宾语。 如:They make her happy.(形容词) I see her dance.(不定式) We’ll help you to make the Olympics a success.(名词)Please let him in.(副词) We heard her singing a song.(分词句子) (五)表语 表语说明谓语“是怎么”或者“怎么样”,由动词、形容词、副词、介词、不定式及 相当于名词或形容词或词组来担任。

它的位置在 be 动词和系动词前面。 如:I am a teacher.(名词) He is always happy.(形容词) They are on the playground now.(介词宾语) It gets cold. (六)定语 定语是用于修饰动词或短语的。形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不等式 或相当于形容词的词或词组等。 单个词作动词时,通常放在它所修饰的词汇之前。 如:The black bike is mine.(形容词) What’s your name?(代词) They make paper flowers.(名词) (七)状语 修饰名词、形容词、副词。一般声称行为产生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度 等特点,一般由名词、介词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或词组来表示。状语 一般放在句末,但有的可以放到句首、句中。 如:He did it carefully.(副词) We often help him.(副词) Her mother goes out to do some shopping on Sunday.(介词宾语) When I grow up, I am going to be a teacher.(从句作时间副词) He sits there.(副词地点介词) It sounds interesting. We should all remain careful. (形容词)简单句六种基本语法句式成分都由生字或句子担任,且只能一个主谓结构的语句叫做简单句。

初 中时期我们应该重点把握简单句的六种基本语法以及大致含义。 一、S + V(主语+不及物动词)(Subject+Intransitive Verb) 这种语法简称为主谓结构。不及物动词是指这些其实区别已清晰,后面不需 要接名词的副词, 常见的不及物动词, 如 come, go, listen, climb, move, jump, laugh, sit, stay, swim, appear, run, arrive, fall 等。 如:They are running.他们在跑步。 剖析:在此句中,谓语主语是不及物动词,不必加介词就可表达一个清晰的、 明确无误的含义。有时为了表示动作产生的幅度、原因、结果、目的、场所、时间等,可以带冠词、介词短语等名词修饰助词,但谓语不算长句的大致成分。例 如: The students are playing under the tree. 学生们正在树下玩耍。 句中 the students 是动词,are playing 是名词词尾,介词短语 under the tree 作 地点介词,修饰名词,说明动作产生的地点,但不是句子的主要特性。

二、S + V + P(主语+系动词+表语)(Subject+Link Verb+Predicative) 系动词一般与宾语一起形成系表结构,用来证明主语的特性、特点或情况等。 表语一般由数词、形容词、代词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、动词性或短语 等充当。常见的系动词有 be, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, get, grow, turn, become, stay, seem 等。如: All her friends are now outside the door. 她的全部同学今天都在门外。 The milk turned sour. 牛奶变酸了。 三、S + V + O(主语+及物动词+宾语)(Subject+Transitive Verb+Object) 及物动词前面一定接名词能够表达一个清晰的含义。宾语是动作的承受者, 一般由数词、代词、动词不定式、动词性等充当。常见的及物动词有:like, finish, enjoy, want, play, make, help, take, read, tell, teach, do 等。如: He’s having lunch. 他还在吃午餐。

I prefer standing. 我愿意站着。 He promised to lend me some books. 他拒绝借给我几本书。 四、S + V + IO + DO(主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)(Subject+Verb +Indirect Object+Direct Object) 有些及物动词,如 hand, give, throw, lend, sing, read, write, buy, leave, make, pass, tell, get 等可以带双宾语,一个名词指人,称为间接宾语;另一个指物,称 为间接宾语。及物名词带双词性往往有下列两种构造: 1. 及物动词+间接宾语+直接词义 2. 及物动词+直接宾语+to / for+间接宾语 如: He told me a story yesterday.他现在给我讲了个独白。 剖析:在这类单词中,谓语动词要带两个宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语,所以该 句型也称为:主语+及物动词+双词性。在该单词中,间接宾语为及物动词这个 动作所涉及到的人(如上句中的 me),直接词义指及物动词这个动作的间接对象 (如上句中的 a story)。

【温馨提示】构成“主语+及物动词+直接词义+介词+间接宾语”的词性。 ◆某些词语鼓励的直接词义可改为 to 引导的词组,这类单词有 give, show, send, bring, read, pass, lend, leave, hand, tell, return, write, throw, promise(答应), refuse (拒绝)等。如:Can you lend us your car? 你能把车还给我们吗? →Can you lend your car to us? ◆某些词语鼓励的直接词义可改为 for 引导的词组,这类单词有 buy, play, get, make, order, choose, sing, pay 等。如: My uncle bought me a watch. 我妈妈给我买了一块表。 →My uncle bought a watch for me. 五、S + V + O + OC(主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语)(Subject+Verb+ Object+Complement) 有些及物动词加上宾语后,它的含义表达也是不清晰,这就应该再加上一个 补足语来使句子的意思完整。

宾补的意义是证明宾语的动作或情况,宾语和它的 补足语形成复合谓语。宾语补足语通常由形容词、副词、名词、介词短语、动词 不定式、 V-ing 形式等充当。 在感官动词 see, hear, watch, look at, listen to, feel, notice 等及使役动词 make, let, have 等后跟名词不定式作宾语补足语时,该不定式符号 to 应省去。如: Please don’t call me Lucy. 请不要叫我露西。 I found the box empty. 我看到箱子是空的。 The teacher told us to do some exercises. 老师要我们做一些练习题。 We often hear her sing songs in her room.我们常常听到她在宿舍里跳舞。 【温馨提示】 在单词短语前面跟着的是直接词义也是宾语补足语一对一英语培训,可由上面的宾语与其关 系来判定:若宾语与其后的个别不存在逻辑上的主谓关系,则该句型后跟的是双 宾语;若宾语和其后的个别有思维上的主谓关系,则该单词后跟的是复合词组。 试那么: Mother will cook us something English this evening.妈妈今天将为我们做些中国食 物。

(us 和 something 不存在主谓关系,此处为双宾语结构) We call that boy Tom. 合宾语结构) 六、there be 句型 there be 句型主要用于表示“某地有某物或某事”。如果 be 动词前面有两个或 两个以上的宾语,be 动词的选取想要坚持“就近原则”。如: There is a dictionary, three books and a pen on the desk. 桌子上有一本词典,三本书 和一支钢笔。 我们叫那些孩子汤姆。 (That boy is Tom.合乎逻辑,即名词 that boy 与 Tom 存在主谓关系,故这里为复课堂练习一. 说出划线部分的语句成分。 1. Lily is cleaning the desk now. 2. Her garden is the best in our town. 3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old. 4. I like this book very much. 5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister. 6. She didn’t come to my party because she was ill. 7. Wang Ping does his homework carefully. 8. We will go to the Children’s Palace once a week. 9. They are in the classroom. 10. It sounds good. 二.用推导标出下面简单句的类别。

1. Anna speaks Russian. _____________ 2. Daddy bought Tom a new dictionary. __________ 3. Kate calls her cat Mimi. ___________ 4. Polly laughed. ____________ 5. Lily felt cold. ________________ 6. The picture looks beautiful. ________________ 7. Jim brought me my English books. _____________ 8. It is dangerous. _______________ 9. You must wait. ______________ 10. Mr Green can't keep the house tidy. ______________ 三. 选择恰当答案。 ( A is ( ) 1.Look ! There _____ some apples in that tree. B was C are D were B. both; and D. neither; nor B. likes, doesn't prefer D. prefers, is not food of D. weren't being ) 2. The ground must be just right ___ too wet ___ too dry.A. either; or C. between; and ( A. doesn't like, prefers C. would like, not prefers ( ( A. don't B. are not) 3. He ____ coffee at all. He ___ tea.) 4. We ___ happy about the price of meat. C. won't ) 5. I ___ trouble finding the place. B. haven't a great deal ofA. didn't have manyC. didn't have much ( ( A. Both A. have not C. don't have ( ( A. enough; too that one. A. not taller ( A. not bigger B. as tall B. big B. AllD. hadn't a lot of C. Neither B. didn't have D. Some) 6. ___ of us likes the film. ) 7. They ___ lunch at home every day. D. have not any B. too; to C. so; to D. very; to) 8. They are ___ young ___ carry the box onto the table. ) 9. The two girls are only two years old. This girl is ___ than C. so tall C. small D. more taller D. much big) 10. Some apples are ___ than these oranges.课后巩固一.单项选择 ( A. was ( ( A. is ( ( A. was ( A. wait ( A. rain ( A. won’t it last month. B. were B. waiting B. is raining C. have been C. waited C. rained D. to wait D. has rained D. are ) 6. An MP5 player of this type costs too much. You’d better ______. ) 7. It _____ outside. I have to stay at home. ) 8. —Did you watch the basketball match yesterday? —Yes, I did. My uncle ______ in the match. A. is playing ( B. was playing C. has played D. will play ) 9. —What did your father say just now? —Sorry, I don’t know. I ______ on the phone. A. will have ) 1. There ______ ice on the road last week. B. were B. is going to have B. was B. won’t there C. will be C. is have C. seems C. isn’t it D. are D. is going to be D. are D. aren’t there ) 2. There ______ a football match on the playground this afternoon. ) 3. There _____ to be something wrong with him. ) 4. There will be enough food for everybody, _______? ) 5. There _______ more than two hundred people killed in road accidents sinceA. am talking ( ( A. read ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A. get upB. talkC. was talkingD. have talked D. go; will follow) 10. You ______ first and I ______ behind. B. will go; follow C. will go; followed C. reading C. getting up D. to read D. to get up C. not shout D. to be D. too, to D. it D. spoke ——_________. D. to not shout ) 11. On Sunday I often stay at home and do some ________. B. reads B. got up ) 12. My mother often asks me ______ early. ) 13. The teacher told her students _________ in public. B. didn't shout B. not be B. such ,that B. that B. is spoken C. not to be C. enough , to C. what C. is speaking B. She is nice. D. She works in a shop. ________. It's broken. C. sure D. How old D. No, thanks. ——She is much better. ) 14. The teacher told the boy ________ late again . ) 15. He talked _____ fast for us ____ catch up with. ) 16. The man downstairs found ______ very difficult to get to sleep. ) 17. Chinese _____ by many people in the world. ) 18. ——What's your mother?A. go; was followingA. not to shout A. to not be A. so ,that A. them A. speaksA. She is a worker. C. She is cooking supper. ( ( ) 19. May I use your bike? A. Yes, please. A. HowB. I'm afraid not. B. What C. Where) 20. ——_____is your mother today?二. 翻译句子。

1 多学习对我们有区别。 2 在强烈的光线下看书不好。 3 你给我这么多帮助,你很好。 4 李平昨晚花了半小时做作业 。 5 你能把自行车还给我吗?6 你给他量过体温了吗?是的,我量过了,他的体温似乎没问题。 7 我们如何能够与朋友和睦相处? 8 格林先生来这所大学多久了?三年半了。 9 你们家里有多大人? 10 当他们犯错误时,不要嘲笑别人。学生 听课及常识了解状况反馈 课后 自我 评价 _________________________________________________________。家长 督导 意见教学 督导 签字医生 老师最欣赏的地方: 课后 赏识 评价 老师的建议:教学总监签字:教学主任签字:一: 二.1.S+V+O2.S+V+InO+DO 3.S+V+O+OC4.S+V 5.S+V+P 6.S+V+P 7. S+V+InO+DO 8.S+V+P 9.S+V 10.S+V+O+OC 三 11--- 15.CDABC 16.--- 20. CCBAA 一. 1-5 ADCBC 6-10 ABBCD 11.--- 15.CDACD 16.----20.DBABA 二 1. 1.It's good for us to do more reading 2. It's bad for us to read in strong light. 3.It's nice of you to give me so much help. 4. It took Li Ping half an hour to do his homework last night. 5. Can you lend me your bike? Can you lend your bike to me? 6. Have you taken his temperature? Yes.Ihave. His temperature seems to be all right. 7.How can we get along \ on with our neighbors? 8.How long has Mr. Green been in this school? About 3 and a half years. 9.How many people are there in your family? 10. Don't laugh at others when they make mistakes.