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记日记及梳理笔记策略在学校英语学习中的运用研究

2019-10-23 23:21:08    /    高中英语一对一  /  作者:一对一英语培训  / 阅读:

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研究生学位论文论文题目:OnNoteTakingandNoteMakinginSeniorHighSchool记日记及梳理笔记策略在学校英语学习中的运用探究ORIGINALITYRESEARCHSTATEMENTInlightoftheprinciplesofacademicmoralsandethics,IherebydeclarethatthisthesisrepresentstheoriginalresearcheffortthatIhavemadeontheadviceofmyacademicsupervisorTothebestofmyknowledge,noportionofthisthesishasbeencitedwithoutbeingproperlyreferenced,andwhoeverhascontributedtothisthesisisexplicitlyidentifiedandappreciatedintheacknowledgementssectionIamfullyresponsibleforanybreachofthecopyrightlawthatmightariseSignature:Date:AbstractNotetakingcanbeusedtorecordwhatlearnershavelearned,anditcanalsofacilitatetheirmemoryandthinking,controltheircognitiveprocessandinformationprocessingandconstructtheinternalrelationsbetweenpreviousandnewknowledgeUsinghighschoolstudentsasparticipantsinthestudy,thispapermakesempiricalresearchofnotetakingstrategybyinvestigation,experimentandtrainingFirstly,withanadaptedquestionnaire,itexploreshowthestudentsusenotetakingstrategy,revealingitscommonfeatures:moststudenysarelesseffectivethanothersWhencheckingstudents’notes,fourcommonineffectivenotetakingbehaviorsandstrategiescanbecategorizedasfollows:)WritingTooMuchSomeoverzealousnotetakersattempttorecordeverythingwithoutconsideringthecontentAstudybyBretzingandKulharypointsoutthatverbatimnotesareoflessvaluethancondensedonesGoodnotetakersknowwhattoignoreandwhattowrite)WritingTooLittleSomestudentssimplydonottakenotesOthersmerelyjotdownafewphrasesSuchstudentsareeitherapatheticorbelievethattheycanrememberanentirepresentationfromonelisteningKrugerandDunning()notehowpoorstudentsinparticulartendtooverratetheirabilitytorememberinformation)OverRelianceonLearningPlanItshouldbestressedthatcopyinginformationismerelyonefunctionofnotetakingCondensingandreviewinginformationarebothessentialThesefunctionscannotbedonebyexternalfacilitiesRelyingonmechanicdevicesto“catcheverything”doesnotpromotecognitiveprocessingThisisoftenaninefficientuseoftime)NotReviewingAdequatelyInsteadofreviewingfranticallyjustbeforeanexam,studentsarelikelytogainmorevaluebyreviewingonceortwiceaweekthroughoutasemesterChapterConclusionMajorFindingsUponcompletionoftheexperiment,themajorfindingsaresummarizedinthesequenceofthethreeresearchquestions:)Ingeneral,thestudentsinvolvedinthestudyholdpositiveattitudestowardsnotetaking,themajorityofwhomhavecultivatedthehabitoftakingnotesBeforetheexperimenttheywerepoorinchoosinganytechniqueswhentakingnotesAfterafourmonthtrainingitwasdiscoveredthatnotetakingstrategytrainingenhancedtheresearchsubjects’awarenessofemployingstrategiesStatisticalanalysisshowsthatECparticipantsexhibitedhigherfrequencyofnotetakingstrategyuse)Inthepretesttheexperimentalgroupdidnotshowanyadvantages,butintheposttesttheysignificantlyoutperformedthecontrolgroupTheydidmuchbetterinthesecondexamthaninthefirstTheseresultsindicatethattheintegrationofnotetakingstrategytrainingintorealclassroomteachingdefinitelyimprovedstudents’Englishproficiencytoalargeextent)Itwasalsofoundthatnotetakingstrategytrainingwasfairlyeffectiveinenhancingtheparticipants’selfdisciplineAtthebeginningofthestudy,theyseldomadoptedanyefficientandcomplexstrategieswhentakingnotesAstheexperimentwenton,theECparticipantsshiftedtheirfocusfromnotetakingtonotemakingTheytendedtobeskilledinselectingeffectiveanddesirednotetakingstrategies,suchasoutlining,recordingthesourceofnotes,elaboration,reviewingregularlyandusingtheCornellMethodThetransformationoftheselectionofstrategiessurelyfacilitatedtheirsettinglearninggoals,maintainingmotivation,monitoringandassessingtheirEnglishwithoutbeingremindedTheyareconsideredtobethemostimportantandeffectivemethodsinencouragingandpromotingselfregulatedlearningabilityPedagogicalImplicationsThesefindingssuggestthatitisreasonableandfeasibletointegratenotetakingstrategytrainingintotaskbasedclassroomteaching,whichisconducivetosignificantimprovementsinbothstudents’selfdisciplineandacademicperformanceThefindingsalsoprovidesomeenlightenmentandguidancefortheteacherswhoaretakingchargeofacademicperformanceandselfachievementofthestudentsbyfosteringtheirselfregulatorylearningabilityinallEnglishclassroomsinseniorhighschoolNotetakingstrategytrainingcanbetakenasthemosteffectivewaytoachievethisgoalAtpresent,notetakinghasnotbeenwidelystudiedbecauseofitsfunctionalcomplexityandtheneedtodevelopmethodsinordertocarryoutsuchstudies(Piolat,OliveKellogg)ThiscomplexityalsoaccountsforthelackofspecificnotetakingtraininginhighschoolStudentstakingnotesfacesimilarissueswhenlearninghowtoeffectivelyusetheirnotesSomestudentshaveclearlymasteredthesestrategiesotherscanlearnfromthemWhenasked,“Haveyoureceivedanyinstructiononhowtomakenotes”Moststudentsreplied“no”andexpectedtobetaughtsomelearningstrategiesTherefore,teachershaveagreatresponsibilitywhendevelopingstudents’selfdisciplineabilityinallEnglishclassroomsinseniorhighschoolFacedwiththecomplexityofthenotetakingaction,teachingshouldfocusonatleastthreeaspectsFirstly,EnglishteachersmaygivestudentsaneffectiveguidetotakingEnglishnotesandteachthemtounderstandhowtotakenoteswhenlearningEnglishSecondly,teachersmaygiveenoughtimeforstudentstorespond,comprehendandtakenotesinsteadofshowingscreensorusingtheblackboardIfteachersmovetooquickly,studentshavelittleornotimetotakedownteachers’ideasorkeypointsThirdly,teachersmayencourageanddevelopthevarietyofstudents’EnglishnotetakingstrategiesFromthesurvey,Item“Iusedifferentwaystohighlightdifferentideas(eg,circling,underlining,coloring)”,andItem“Itakemarginalnotes”canbeconsideredasinstructionalstrategiesTheexperimentalstudyshowsthatcolorcodingimprovedattentionandlearners’motivations,andtheformationofstructureinmemorySystematicapproachestonotetaking,suchastheCornellMethod(Paul,),haveprovenhelpfulfortrainingstudentstoencodeandthenstudylargeamountsofcomplexandunfamiliarcontentUnfortunately,theseformalapproachestonotetakingoftendemandadegreeofeffortthatsomestudentsareunwillingtoexpendSo,inlearninghowtotakenotes,notetakersmustdeveloptheircomprehensionabilitieswithintheframeworkofthisparticularactivityandstopperiodicallyignoringthetaskGoodlearningstrategiesareimportanttoanyonewhenlearningPartofateacher’sroleistoteachtheirstudentsstrategiesthataremoreeffectiveandappropriatetotheirlearningneedsAsopportunitiesforstudentstogetinstructionfromtheirteachersinlargeclassesaremuchlessthanthoseinsmallclasses,teachersinlargeclassesshouldspendmoretimehelpingtheirstudentsfindtheirown“best”methodLimitationsandSuggestionsSomelimitationsofthestudymayhaveaffecteditsresultsFirstly,thestudyonlyincludedasmallnumberofparticipants,allofwhomwerefromtheaveragelevelclassesinthesamegradeinthesameseniorhighschoolTherefore,thisstudycanonlymanifesttheresultsofstudentsfromsuchalevelinoneschoolSecondly,thepracticeperiodwasnotlongenoughtoallowthetechniquetobecomecompletelyinternalizedandtobeusedspontaneouslyThirdly,inseniorhighschoolteachers’teachingcompetenceishighlybasedonaveragescores,therefore,theycompetedeachothertogivestudentsmuchhomework,leavinglimitedtimeforstudentstotakequalitynotesForthestudentswhoseregularstudystrategiesincludehighlightingtextbooksandvariousworksheets,itishardtodevelopthehabitoftakingnotesduringclasshourSomestudents,especiallymalestudents,neglectedwrittenworksuchasnotetakingHowever,whenconsideringtheresultsasawhole,itisworthhighlightingifteacherscouldtrytodevelopstudents’selfdisciplinethroughpropernotetakingstrategytraining,students’EnglishlearningmaybecomemoreeffectiveandpersistentThereforemoreresearchisneededinthisareatoestablishaneffectiveandcomprehensivenotetakingworkingsystemforselfdisciplinedevelopmentThiswillnotbetheonlystudyinthisfieldanddoesnotofferanyconclusivefindingsaboutnotetakingtrainingWhatismoreimportantisitsintentiontoattractteachers’attentiontothisbeneficialstrategyHopefullythiswillleadtomorethoroughinvestigationsinthefieldasbothstudentsandteacherswillbenefitReferencesBenton,SLandKiewra,KA()TheeffectofinformationacquisitiononmeasuresofwritingperformancePaperpresentedattheannualmeetingoftheAmericanEducationalResearchAssociation,SanFrancisco,CaliforniaBenton,SLKiewra,KAWhitfill,JMDennison,R()EncodingandexternalstorageeffectsonwritingprocessesJournalofEducationalPsychology,,–Bligh,DA()What’stheUseofLecturesExeter:IntellectBoscolo,PMason,L()Writingtolearn,writingtotransferStudiesinWriting,,–Boyle,JR()TheeffectsofstrategicnotetakingontherecallandcomprehensionoflectureinformationforhighschoolstudentswithlearningdisabilitiesLearningDisabilitiesResearchPractice,(),Bretzing,BHKulhavy,RW()NotetakinganddepthofprocessingContemporaryEducationalPsychologyReview,,Bretzing,B,Kulhavy,RWCaterino,LC()NotetakingbyjuniorhighstudentsJournalofEducationalResearch,(),Carter,JFandVanMatre,NH()NotetakingversusnotehavingJournalofEducationalPsychology,,CornellNoteTakingSystem,RetrievedMay,fromhttp:wwwcltcornelleducampuslearnLSCResourcescornellsystempdfCushing,ST()AqualitativeapproachtothestudyofnotetakinginUCLA’sEnglishasasecondlanguageplacementexaminationUnpublishedmanuscript,UniversityofCalifornia,LosAngelesCushing,ST(April)Lproficiency,academicstatus,andlecturenotecontentPaperpresentedatTESOL,Atlanta,GACzarnecki,E,Rosko,DFine,E()HowtoCALLUPnotetakingskillsTeachingExceptionalChildren,(),–Faber,JEMorris,JDLieberman,MG()Theeffectofnotetakingonninthgradestudents’comprehensionReadingPsychology,,–Fisher,D()“We’removingonup”:CreatingaschoolwideliteracyeffectinanurbanhighschoolJournalofAdolescentAdultLiteracy,,–Gagne,ED,Weidemann,C,Bell,MSAnder,TD()TrainingyearoldstoelaboratewhilestudyingtextJournalofHumanLearning,,Ganske,L()Notetaking:AsignificantandintegralpartoflearningenvironmentsEducationalCommunicationandTechnology:AJournalofTheory,Research,andDevelopment,,–Hartley,J,()UnderliningcanmakeadifferencesometimesTheJournalofEducationalResearch,,Hartley,J()Learningandstudying:AresearchperspectiveNewYork:RoutledgeKiewra,KA()Theprocessofreview:AlevelsofprocessingapproachContemporaryEducationalPsychology,,Kiewra,KA(a)Students’notetakingbehaviorsandtheefficacyofprovidingtheinstructor’snotesforreviewContemporaryEducationalPsychology,,Kiewra,KA(b)Learningfromalecture:Aninvestigationofnotet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lefthandstudyquestionsandexplanationsofmainideas·Writesummariesofthemostimportantmaterialinthenotes·Lookovernotesfrequentlytokeepinformationandquestionsstillunansweredfreshinyourmind·Reciteinformationfromnotes·Exchangenoteswithotherstoflashoutinformationandunderstanding·UsenotesinstudygroupstoprovideacommongroundofmaterialforreferenceandreviewMaryCatherineSwanson,,reproducibleforclassroomuseCornellNotesTeacherTipsMaryCatherineSwanson,,reproducibleforclassroomuseAppendixIIStudentQuestionnaireSectionOneBackgroundQuestionnaireNameNumberGenderABoystudentBGirlstudentHowdoyourateyouroverallproficiencyinEnglishlearningcomparedwiththeproficiencyofotherstudentsinyourclassAGoodBAverageCWeakDoyoutakenotesinyourEnglishstudyAYesBNoHaveyoueverhadanyinstructions(eitherbybookorinstructor)ondifferentstrategiestomakenoteswhenlearningEnglishAYesBNoSectionTwoQuestionnaireonNoteTakingandSelfregulationDirections:ThestatementsbelowareaboutnotetakingandselfregulationinyourEnglishstudyPleasereadeachstatementandcirclethenumber(,,,,or)thattellsHOWTRUEOFYOUTHESTATEMENTISNeveroralmostnevertrueofmemeansthatthestatementisveryrarelytrueofyouUsuallynottrueofmemeansthatthestatementistruelessthanhalfthetimeSomewhattrueofmemeansthatthestatementistrueofyouabouthalfthetimeUsuallytrueofmemeansthatthestatementistruemorethanhalfthetimeAlwaysoralmostalwaystrueofmemeansthatthestatementistrueofyoualmostalwaysIalwaysconsideringnotetakingisusefulformystudyIalwaystakenotesIfinddifficultiesandkeypointsandtakenotesbeforeclassItakedownthekeypointsandtakeanactivepartintheclassroomactivitiesIhaveahabitofreviewingEnglishlessonsafterclass(考察考生的备课、听课、复习习惯及使用笔记情况)ItakedownusefulphrasesandgoodsentenceswhenIreviewtestpapersorotherreadingmaterialsItakenotesaccordingtoameaningunitIuseneathandwritingIpayattentiontothenotes’patternsandstructureIputaheadingindicatingthedateIrecordthesourceofmynotesIusediagramsorlistsIusenumberingIuseCornelNoteMethodIusedifferentwaystohighlightdifferentideas(eg,circling,underlining,andcoloring)ItakedownmarginalnotesIuseflashcardstoremembernewEnglishwordsIreviewmynotesregularlyIsharenoteswithothersIplanmyschedulesoIwillhaveenoughtimetostudyEnglishIhavecleargoalsforimprovingmyEnglishskillsIarrangemyphysicalenvironmenttopromotelearningforinstance,Ifindaquiet,comfortableplacetoreviewIgivemyselfarewardortreatwhenIdowellinEnglishIalwaysexamineandadjustmynotetakingstrategieswhenItakenotesIreflectmylearningstylesandbehaviorsbyusingmyEnglishnotesIseekhelpfrommyfellowstudentsifIhavedifficultiesinunderstandingsomethingIwritedownmyfeelingsinalanguagelearningdiaryItalktosomeoneelseabouthowIfeelwhenIamlearningEnglishIcanlearneventhemostdifficulttopics,onlyifIdomybestIamcertainthatIwillsucceedinmyEnglishstudiesQuestionnaireonStudents’NoteTakingandSelfregulation,AdaptedfromStrategyInventoryforLanguageLearning(SILL)(RLOxford,)﹠QuestionnaireonNotetakingStrategies,PatriciaLCarrell()SouthernIllinoisUniversity,CarbondaleAppendixIIINotesEvaluationCriteriaNotesEvaluationCriteriaValuepointsanddescriptorsofnotetakinghabits()FormatHandwritinglegible,neatNotebookathicknotebookUseofpageleavingenoughspaceforeditingOrganizationHeadingsnewheadingsforeachmainideaDatesdatingnotesatthetopofthepageRecallcolumnhavingcuewordstohelprecallSummariesusingalistofsummarycoursetopicsMeaningMainpointsusingunderlining,circling,anddifferentcolorstoshowimportanceSupportingdetailsshowingtherelationshipsbetweenmainideasanddetailsExampleslistingexamplesundermainpointsAdaptedby*NOTES:NoteTakingObservation,Training,andEvaluationScales(StahlKing,)NotesrecordsheetFormatHandwritingNotebookUseofpageFormattotalsOrganizationHeadingsDatesSummariesOrganizationtotalsMeaningMainpointsSupportingdetailsExamplesMeaningtotalsEvaluationTotalsEvaluatoranddateAdaptedby*NOTES:NoteTakingObservation,Training,andEvaluationScales(StahlKing,)Givestudentsalectureon“HowtoTakeNotes”,usingtheCornellformatonanoverhead,modelingeffectivenotes,andhavingallstudentsrecordtheinformationRemindstudentsthatwhentheyarefocusingintentlyontakinggoodnotes,forashorttimetheirfocusontheclasscontentwillbelessThisisnaturalandhappenswheneverwelearnsomethingnewWithpractice,takingnoteswillbecomesecondnatureastheyfocusontheclasscontentExplaintostudentsthattheinclassportionofnotetakingaccountsforonlyapartofthelearningtimeItisimportanttoreviewtheirnoteswithinhours,comparelecturenotestobooknotes,lookforinaccuraciesandorincompletenotes,writequestionstohelpthemstudy,keeptheirnotesorganized,andreviewtheirnotesperiodicallyHavestudentspracticetakingCornellnotesonlyatfirst,andthenteachhowtowritequestionsseparately,thenteachhowtowritesummariesseparatelyEachoftheseconceptstakessometimetomaster,sobepatientandlookforimprovementDisplayexamplesofqualitynotesontheoverheadDisplayexamplesofincompleteorinaccuratenotesforstudentstobrainstormhowtoreviewrevisenotesDisplayexamplesofqualityreflectionssummariesontheoverhead,preferablyfromyourclassDisplayexamplesofpoorquality,limited,orincorrectreflectionssummariesandhavestudentsgivesuggestionsonhowtoimprovePAG